Resistance to blood flow in the blood vessels is most often altered by changing the diameter of the vessels vasodilation or vasoconstriction. Changes in blood viscosity its ability to flow or in the length of the blood vessels which increases with weight gain can also alter resistance to blood flow. Located in the medulla oblongata of the brain stem, it consists of three distinct regions. The cardiac center stimulates cardiac output by increasing heart rate and contractility. These nerve impulses are transmitted over sympathetic cardiac nerves. The cardiac center inhibits cardiac output by decreasing heart rate. These nerve impulses are transmitted over parasympathetic vagus nerves. The vasomotor center regulates blood vessel diameter.
In this example the TPR demonstrated can be used as a standard in evaluating pathologic conditions. Sheps SG expert opinion. Resources Find an Expert. JAMA Cardiology.
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